Sci-fi novels and films are filled with fleeting ideas, often intended to be a springboard for action adventures rather than a serious attempt to predict future trends in science or technology. Some of the more common tropics, such as flying a spacecraft at dizzying speeds in a matter of seconds without crushing passengers at high speed, are completely impossible by the laws of physics as we understand them. However, the same laws seem to allow for other seemingly intriguing science fiction, from wormholes to parallel universes. Here’s an overview of some sci-fi ideas that could actually be implemented – at least in theory.
The idea of a wormhole – an acronym for space that allows almost instantaneous travel between distant parts of space – sounds like it was created as a fairy tale driver. However, under the more formal name of the Einstein-Rosen bridge, this concept existed as a serious theoretical concept until science fiction writers were empowered. it will work Albert Einstein‘s General theory of relativitywho sees gravity As a distortion of spacetime caused by massive objects. Together with physicist Nathan Rosen, Einstein developed a theory in 1935 suggesting the existence of an extremely strong gravitational pull, such as black holes, can be directly related to each other. Thus the idea of a wormhole was born.
The forces surrounding a black hole would destroy anyone who came close to it, so the idea of traveling through a wormhole wasn’t seriously considered until the 1980s, when astrophysicist Carl Sagan decided to write science fiction. a novel. according to BBCIn this article, Sagan encourages fellow physicist Kip Thorne to devise a viable method for traveling interstellar distances in a jiffy. Thorne methodically devised a method – theoretically possible, but highly unlikely in practice – of how humans could achieve interstellar travel by completing a wormhole. The result found its way into Sagan’s novel.Call(Simon & Schuster: 1985), which was later made into a movie starring Jodie Foster.
Although it is very unlikely that wormholes will become a simple and convenient means of transportation as shown in the films, now scientists have come up with more A viable method for creating a wormhole Compared to the original Thorn design. It is also possible that if wormholes are already in space, their location can be determined using a new generation of gravitational wave detectors.
The basic premise of most space adventure stories is the ability to get from point A to point B faster than today. In addition to wormholes, there are many obstacles that can be achieved using conventional spaceships. It requires a massive amount of fuel, the crushing effects of acceleration, and the fact that the universe has it. he is Strictly applicable speed limit. This is the speed at which light moves – exactly one speed Light year per year, which is not at all fast in the cosmic context. Proxima Centauri, the second closest star to Earth, is 4.2 light years from the Sun, while the Galactic Center is 27,000 light years away.
Fortunately, the cosmic speed limit has a drawback: it only limits the maximum speed we can travel. space. As Einstein explained, space itself can deform, so it is possible to manipulate the space around the ship in such a way as to reduce the speed limit. The spacecraft will continue to move around space at a speed slower than the speed of light, but the universe itself will move faster.
That’s what Star Trek writers had in mind when they came up with the concept of the “Warp Engine” in the 1960s. But to him, it was just a believable statement, not real physics. It wasn’t until 1994 that theorist Miguel Alcubierre found a solution to Einstein’s equations that brought the real effect of warp thrust, a sister site to Live Science. Notify the Space.com server, which reduces the space in front of the spacecraft and expands it backwards. At first, Alcubierre’s solution was nothing more than Thorn’s solution through the wormhole, but scientists are trying to improve it in the hope that one day it will be practical.
One of the great plot devices in science fiction is the concept of a time machine, which allows characters to go back and change the course of history – for better or for worse. However, this inevitably creates logical contradictions. For example, in Back to the Future, would the Doctor build his own time machine if Marty didn’t visit it in the future using the same machine? Precisely because of these inconsistencies, many people believe that time travel should be impossible in the real world – however under the laws of physics. Actually it could be.
Like wormholes and the approaches to space, the physics that tell us it’s possible to travel through time comes from Einstein’s general theory of relativity. He regards space and time as part of a single continuum of “space-time” in which the two are closely related. Just as we talk about distorting space through a wormhole or convolution, time can also be distorted. Sometimes it is so deformed that it twists itself, which is what scientists call “one.”outside the eternal curve– although it could be called a time machine in the same way.
The conceptual design for this time machine was published in 1974 by physicist Frank Tipler after physicist David Lewis Anderson, who described his research. Anderson InstituteA private research laboratory. To be called a Tipler Cylinder, it would have to be large – according to Humble – at least 97 kilometers long – and extremely dense with a total mass similar to the Sun. In order to function as a time machine, the cylinder must rotate rapidly to warp spacetime to the point where time goes back. It may not sound as simple as installing a fuse capacitor on a DeLorean, but it has the advantage that it will actually work – on paper at least.
A primitive science fiction example of teleportation is “Star Trek”.“ The carrier appears, as the name implies, as a convenient means of transporting personnel from one place to another. However, teleportation is unlike any other means of teleportation: instead of traveling from the starting point to the destination through space, teleportation causes a replica to be created at the destination, while the original is destroyed. In this sense – and at the level of subatomic particles rather than humans – teleportation is indeed possible, according to IBM.
The process in the real world is called quantum teleportation. This process simulates the exact quantum state of one particle, such as a photon, in another particle, which can be hundreds of kilometers away. Quantum teleportation destroys the quantum state of the first photon, so it really looks as if the photon has been magically teleported from one place to another. This trick is based on what Einstein called “painful actions at a distance,” but is officially known as very sensitive case. If the photon to be “teleported” is exposed to a pair of entangled photons and a measure of the resulting state is sent to the receiving end – where the other is an entangled photon – then it will be possible to switch the second photon to the same photon position as the teleported photon.
This is a complex process even for a single photon and can extend to the type of teleportation system found in “Star Trek”. However, quantum teleportation occurs in critical applications In the real world, for example, for hack-resistant communications and ultra-fast quantum computing.
The universe is all that our telescopes reveal to us – all the billions of galaxies that stretch out the great explosion. But is that all? The theory says that it is not necessary: all the power multiverse local universes. The idea of ”parallel universes” is another well-known sci-fi idea, but when viewed on screen, it usually differs from ours only in small details. However, reality can be much more bizarre in a parallel universe with basic physical parameters – such as gravitational force or nuclear forces – different from our own. A classic depiction of such a truly isolated universe and the creatures that inhabit it is Isaac Asimov’s novel “Wolves of God”.“(double day: 1972).
Key to the modern understanding of parallel universes is the concept of “eternal inflation”. It shows the infinite structure of space in a state of infinite expansion and incredibly fast. At any given moment, the local space in this space – the separate Big Bang – breaks from normal expansion and begins to grow at a quieter rate, allowing physical objects such as stars and galaxies to form in it. According to this theory, our universe is one of these regions, but there may be more of them.
As in Asimov’s story, these parallel universes may have very different physical parameters than our own. Scientists once believed that only universes with parameters similar to ours could support life, but recent studies suggest that the situation may not be as constrained as this, Knowing live knowing about it. So there is still hope for Asimov’s aliens – despite not having contacted them, as in the novel. However, relics from other universes may be detectable in other ways. Evan Baldry, professor of astrophysics at John Moores University in Liverpool, UK, wrote that the mysterious “cold spot” on the cosmic microwave background was also thought to be a sign of a collision with a parallel universe. conversation.
Originally published on Live Science.
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